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雅思考试 雅思阅读真经介绍(三)
2012-10-22     美国留学网(www.usaliuxue.com)  发布者:博文留学

  READING PASSAGE 3

 

  You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 – 40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

 

  Maternal Education and Child Mortality

 

  A. Many studies have been carried out which recognize education (especially that of mothers) as an effective way of improving children's health and reducing child mortality. Caldwell refers to the results of two surveys that were carried out in Nigeria to arrive at the conclusion that "Maternal education is the single most significant determinant of child mortality." However, maternal education is an intertwined factor, and hence may account for other variables that represent socio-economic conditions as well.

 

  B. Although the relationship between maternal education and children's health is no longer an issue to be debated, there still exists a dearth of research information on the mechanisms through which maternal education works to improve children's health. A few of the possible mechanisms that have been focused so far are pointed out below:

 

  u Education makes a woman conscious about the well being of herself and her family. It gives the basic ideas about the path to well being and also equips and encourages to increase her knowledge on healthy living;

 

  u Education helps to form the attitude to practice "manners of hygiene";

  u Education equips mothers with the knowledge of scientific causes of disease and proper health behaviour and illness behaviour for preventive and curative measures;

  u Education encourages mothers to adopt proper feeding practices;

  u Education makes the mothers more willing to use health care services when necessary, and preparing them for overcoming the barriers in doing so. Doctors and nurses are more likely to listen to her, as she can demand their attention, whereas the illiterate might be completely rebuffed;

  u Education allows greater exposure to the mass media, which can keep mothers better informed about the health issues;

  u Education empowers mothers to make and implement proper and timely decisions regarding their children's health;

 

  Thus, we find maternal education as a gate way toward diversified aspects of modern life that significantly affect children's morbidity and mortality.

 

  C. A debate has arisen on the link between maternal education and children's health concerns relative effectiveness of general education (acquired through formal schooling) and health education. While the former enables a mother to become literate and hence gain access to the understanding of written material, the latter only provides her with information on certain health issues. However, educating through general education is time consuming, and to get positive results for the improvement of the health of the illiterate masses, within a short time, health education might be a better choice.

 

  D. Although health education as such might be effective for the illiterate, health education cannot be a substitute for general education to ensure survival and health of the children. Rather, more lessons on topics necessary to know in order to maintain a healthy life should be included in the textbooks (such as the germ theory of disease, symptoms of diseases the presence of which should be consulted with a doctor, knowledge in first aid etc.). General education equips a person with literacy -- which gives her access to books and to the mass media, which keeps her up to date regarding new information on health affairs. However, it would certainly be very beneficial to arrange annual or bi-annual health education programs to review the major health issues (and the issue of pregnancy and child care which is difficult for primary school children to grasp)

.

  E. At this point another question may be raised: How many years of schooling is required for education to have a substantial amount of effect on children's survival/health? According to a study by Mahalanabis et al., in Bangladesh, schooling of seven years or more of the mothers reduced 55% risk of a child's being attacked by a severe disease resulting from diarrhea, but lesser number of schooling could not provide appreciable protection. Majumder and Islam's study in Bangladesh shows that child survival index moves up from .764 to .811 with the increase of education from no schooling to 5 years of schooling (Primary level in Bangladesh). But the increase of index for the difference between primary level to secondary level or higher (at least ten years of schooling) is even greater, moving up from .811 to .882. Thus, the difference between child survival index rises from .764 to .882 with the difference of no schooling to ten or more years of schooling. Lindenbaum's has mentioned a case of Khurshida, to show how a woman having seven years of schooling was able to ensure proper treatment for her sick child, after overcoming the different sorts of barriers, which came in her way.

 

  F. Maternal education, on its own is not sufficient to ensure survival of children. However, all other efforts in absence of maternal education cannot be fully effective either. Hence, we should look for ways in which maternal education can be the most effective to ensure children's health to determine the appropriate policy to be obtained. From the discussion of the studies above, the following can be suggested:

  u At least seven years of schooling should be made compulsory for girls.

  u All basic health issues (which might differ from society to society) should be covered in the textbooks and curricula of lower grades in school and be taught properly, so that even in cases of dropouts, the children will have sufficient health education to lead a healthy way of life, for themselves and their family and community.

  u As it is difficult for school children aged 12 or below to understand the health issues related to pregnancy, child birth and child care, arrangements for health education (annual/bi-annual) concerned with these and other basic health issues must be made. Mother and child health care programs must function properly to be beneficial for the public. The health care centers must be situated at suitable distance, and convenient opening hours, friendly behaviour of the staff and supply of sufficient facilities and medicines must be ensured.

 

  G. Thus, it can be said that in order to ensure children's survival, the governments of third world countries, world organizations, donor countries and Non-Government Organizations, must take initiatives to ensure literacy and sufficient health-knowledge for the mothers and also provide appropriate conditions and environment for them to apply that knowledge. This indeed is a great task. But this has to be ensured to ensure the survival of children.

 

  Questions 27 – 31

  Reading Pa

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